Which Language is Spoken in Uttarakhand?
The languages of Uttarakhand come under the category of Pahari languages. The languages spoken in Uttarakhand can be divided into two major groups: Kumaoni and Garhwali which are spoken in the state’s Kumaon and Garhwal divisions respectively. Sanskrit has got the status of second official language in Uttarakhand.
Folk Languages of Uttarakhand.
1) Garhwali: Garhwali language is spoken in all the seven districts of Garhwal division. Forms of Garhwali according to Grierson. Srinagariya, Nagpuria, Badhani, Salani, Tihriyali, Rathi, Dasaulya, Manjh Kumaiya. Garhwali linguist Dr. Govind Chatak called the language spoken in and around Srinagar as Adarsh Garhwali.
2) Kumaoni: Kumaoni language is spoken in all the six districts of Kumaon Mandal. By the way, the form of Kumaoni changes slightly in almost every of these districts. The people of the border areas of Garhwal and Kumaon understand and speak the dialects of both the languages. There are ten dialects of Kumaoni. Kumaiya, Sooryali, Askoti and Sirali, these are spoken in eastern Kumaon. Khasparjia, Chowgarkhia, Gangoli, Danpuria, Pachai, and Rochobhainsi are the languages spoken in western Kumaon.
3) Jaunsari : The western mountainous region of Dehradun district of Garhwal division is called Jaunsar Bhabar. The main language here is Jaunsari. This language is mainly spoken in three tehsils Chakrata Kalsi and Tuni. The borders of this region are adjacent to Tehri and Uttarkashi. And hence Jaunsari is also spoken in some parts of these districts. George Grierson called it the dialect of the Western Hills, meaning that he described it more closely with the dialects of Himachal Pradesh. Many words of Punjabi Sanskrit Prakrit and Pali are found in it.
4) Jaunpuri: It is spoken in Jaunpur block of Tehri district. Dasjula, Paligad, Silwad, District Pali village Silwad, Idwalasuyan, Lalur, Chhajula, Saklana Pattis come in this area. During the princely state of Tehri, this area remained very backward, but its positive side was that it developed a different culture and language. This is a tribal area. According to Dr. Chatak, because of living near the origin of Yamuna here, they were called Yamun caste. Once this area was also known as Yamunpuri which later became Jaunpuri.
5) Rawalty : The western region of Uttarkashi district is called Rawai. This region extends to the valleys of Yamuna and Tons rivers. The language of this region is different from Garhwali or other nearby regions. He did his PhD from Agra University on the subject of sub dialect Ravalti and its folklore.
6) Jad: The language of the Jad tribe living in the Jad Ganga valley of Uttarkashi district is also called Jad language after his name. People of this language will be found in Uttarkashi’s Jadong, Nilang Harshil, Tharali, Bhatwani, Dunda Bagori etc. Jad is a part of Bhotia tribe who had long trade with Tibet. Therefore it is also initially written in the “Yu Mi” script of Tibet.
7) Bangani : The area falling under Mori tehsil of Uttarkashi district is called Bagan. There are three strips in this area Masmore, Pingal and Kothigad in which Bangani is spoken.
8) Marchcha: The Bhotia tribes living in Niti and Mana valleys of Chamoli district of Garhwal division speak Marchcha and Tolcha languages. Many Tibetans speak this language. Niti Valley includes Niti Gamsali and Bampa while Mana Valley includes Mana Indradhara, Gajkoti, Jyabagad, Benakuli and Pinola.
9) Johari: This is also a language of Bhotia tribe which is spoken in Munsiyari area of Pithoragarh district. These people have also had trade with Tibet for a long time. Tibetans are also found in Johari.
10) Tharu : People of Tharu tribe live in Terai areas of Kumaon division of Uttarakhand, Nepal, Uttar Pradesh and some areas of Bihar. Here in Kumaon Mandal, the tribe mainly lives in Khatima and Sitarganj development blocks of Udham Singh Nagar. The people of this tribe have their own separate language which is called Tharu language after their name. It is a mixed form of Kannauji Braj Bhasha and Khari Boli.
11) Buxani: Buxani is the language of the tribe living in the Terai belt from Kumaon to Garhwal. These areas mainly include Kashipur, Bajpur, Gadarpur, Ramnagar, Doiwala, Sahaspur, Bahadarabad, Dugadda, Kotdwar etc.
12) Rud Lvu: Rud Lvu language is spoken mainly in Darma, Vyas and 14 Pattis of Dharchula tehsil of Pithoragarh in Kumaon. It is considered a part of the Tibeto Burmese language. Which people of Kirat caste used to speak since ancient times. It is known as Rud Leu in Darma Valley, Bumba Leu in Chaudas and Vyukhun Leu in Vyas Valley.
13) Raji: Raji was a tribe living in the forests of Kumaon. It was a nomadic tribe which has made permanent residence for some time. People of this tribe live in Pithoragarh, Champawat and Udham Singh Nagar districts of Uttarakhand bordering Nepal.