What is The Language of Uttarakhand?
The languages spoken in Uttarakhand can be divided into two major groups: Kumaoni and Garhwali which are spoken in the state’s Kumaon and Garhwal divisions respectively. Due to the availability of many Sanskrit words in both these languages, they are considered to be developed from Sanskrit. Two other dialects, Jaunsari and Bhotia, are spoken by tribal communities in the west and north respectively.
Garhwali and Kumaoni (The Language of Uttarakhand)
Garhwali and Kumaoni language is same Hindi language Garhwali Kumaoni it is not national language it is a dialect originated quickly and mostly used in whole of Uttarakhand.
But the main language of the state is Hindi. It is the official and working language of the state as well as the language of communication between intergroups.
Sanskrit is the second major official language of the state. Sanskrit has got the status of second official language in Uttarakhand.
Almost the entire part of Uttarakhand comes under the Central Pahari language region. Under which mainly Kumaoni (Kumoani) and Garhwali (Garhwali) dialects are spoken.
Uttarakhand Language and Dialects
Major Languages and Dialects Spoken in Uttarakhand: Apart from Hindi (Garhwali, Kumaoni, Nepali etc.) , Urdu, Punjabi, Bengali etc. languages are also spoken in the state.
Uttarakhand Kumaoni Language
Kumaoni is the language of the rest of the land except the northern and southern frontiers of the Kumaon region of the state . Regarding the original form of this language, two views of the scholars have emerged –
(1) Kumaoni has been developed from Dard, Khas, Paishachi and Prakrit.
(2) Like Hindi, Kumaoni has also developed from Shaurseni Apabhramsa.
In terms of sound, syntax, vocabulary and structure, Kumaoni is closest to Shaurseni Apabhramsha, whose basic basis is Sanskrit. In this, the number of related words is maximum as compared to similar and foreign words. Therefore, it is sufficient to believe that the origin of Kumaoni is from ‘Shaurseni Apabhramsa’.
In today’s Kumauni, apart from Tadbhava, Tatsam and local words, the words of adjacent Aryan and non-Aryan languages have mixed in such a way that they do not seem different from Kumauni. This vertical dialect is most influenced by Hindi . That’s why many scholars have started calling it Pahari Hindi.
Even after being heavily influenced by Hindi, Kumaoni has its own special characteristics, vocabulary, literature and expression method . Presently enough literature is being created in Kumaoni language.
A Eastern Kumaoni class
1. Kumayan: It is spoken in the Kali Kumaon region adjoining Nainital.
2. Sauryali: It is spoken in the Soor region. Apart from this, it is also spoken by some people in South Johar and East Gangoli region.
3. Sirali: Spoken in the Sira region to the west of Askot.
4. Askoti: This is the dialect of Askot region. It is influenced by the Nepali language.
B Western Kumaoni class
5. Khas Parajia: It is spoken in 12 mandals and around Danpur.
6. Pachai: It is spoken in the southern part of Almora district up to the Garhwal border.
7. Falda Koti: It is spoken in Faldakot area of Nainital and some parts of Almora and some areas of Pali Pachhau.
8. Chowgarkhia: It is spoken in Chowgarkha Pargana.
9. Gangoi: It is spoken in some pockets of Gangoli and Danapur.
10. Danpuriya: It is spoken in the northern part of Danapur and in the southern part of Jauhar.
C Northern Kumaoni class
11. Johari: It is spoken in the north border areas of Johar and Kumaon. The Bhetias of this area also use this language. The influence of Tibetan language is visible on this.
D Southern Kumaoni Class
12. Nainitali Kumaoni or Rachbhaisi: It is spoken in Rau and Chowmansi belts of Nainital, Bhimtal, Kathgodam, Haldwani etc. In some places it is also called Nainitalia.
Uttarakhand Garhwali Language
Like the Kumaoni language, there is a difference of opinion among scholars regarding the origin of Garhwali. Some scholars consider its origin from ‘Dard’ or ‘Khash’ . The basis of whose establishment is only that Khash used to reside in Garhwal. While most of the scholars consider its origin from ‘Shaurseni’ Apabhramsa .
Max Müller in his book ‘Science of Language’ has considered Garhwali as a form of natural language.
Hariram Dhasmana has given a list of Garhwali and Vedic Sanskrit words in his book ‘Vedmala’, in which it has been told that many words are used in Garhwali only in Vedic form.
From the point of view of dialect, Dr. Grierson has divided Garhwali into 8 parts Srinagari, Nagpuria, Dasaulya, Badhani, Rathi, Manj Kumaiyan, Salani and Tehriyali .
For the creation of literature, scholars have considered the dialect around Tehri and Srinagar as the standard Garhwali language.
Other dialects of Garhwal region
Khadi Hindi – Khadi Hindi is used in cities like Haridwar, Roorkee, Dehradun etc. of Garhwal. Haryanvi Khadi Boli is also spoken in these areas.
Jaunsari – Jaunsari dialect is prevalent in the high altitude places of Garhwal region and Jaunsar-Babar region of Dehradun.
Bhotia – This dialect is spoken by the Bhotia people in the border areas of Chamoli (Garhwal) and Pithoragarh (Kumaon).